18th Century Dictionary Returns to U.Va.

18th Century Dictionary
Photo: Title page to the 1766 edition of Malachy Postlethwayt’s Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce.

In 1766, British economic writer Malachy Postlethwayt argued that the grand commercial ambitions of the British empire started with good bookkeeping, proper paperwork, and some knowledge about people beyond London. To equip eager young traders to grow British overseas commerce, and by extension the royal revenue, after the 1763 Treaty of Paris, Postlethwayt penned a new edition of his Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce, rich with explanations of the mechanics of trade.[1] The Law Library is thrilled to add Volume 1 of this eighteenth-century guide to the globe to its Special Collections as part of the Library’s ongoing project to acquire duplicate editions of the law books listed in the U.Va. Library Catalogue of 1828. Both volumes of Postlethwayt’s Dictionary formed part of the U.Va. Library’s original collections on mercantile law.

For the modern reader, as for the young U.Va. student perusing this reference in the University library in the 1820s, Postlethwayt’s Dictionary explains the vocabulary, products, and practices of eighteenth-century commerce from the London Custom House to the north African caravan.[2] Curious how bills of exchange worked? Check the section on Banking. Wondering about the pearl fishery off of southern India? See the section on East India Trade. Pondering whether eighteenth-century British consumers are likely to continue their new practice of coffee drinking? See Postlethwayt’s thoughts under Coffee. (Spoiler: Yes. Postlethwayt praised coffee for clearing the head and relieving sleepiness, though he warned that drinking too much in one day would surely hazard the “repose of the night.” A stickler for the good stuff, Postlethwayt advised that “coffee which is newly ground has the most virtue.”)

A chart for arbitrating currency exchanges among the major commercial centers of Europe
Photo: A chart for arbitrating currency exchanges among the major commercial centers of Europe. Postlethwayt wrote that traders should be “thoroughly informed” in this branch of commerce.

With commerce always enmeshed in matters of geography, language, and especially law, Postlethwayt’s Dictionary offers a detailed look not only into the minutiae of trade—swearing oaths at the Custom House, filling out double-entry ledgers—but also the lives of those who engaged in or supported trade around London and around the globe. Postlethwayt had specific advice for British merchants who often found themselves entangled in legal disputes: find an honest, able, and experienced attorney at law. Attorneys were gentlemen and scholars, Postlethwayt wrote, who started clerkships at sixteen, understood Latin and French, knew their way around ancient deeds, wrote well, and could unravel any business account laid before them.

At four inches thick, Volume 1 of Postlethwayt’s Universal Dictionary covers letters A to K and adds to the U.Va. Law Library’s rich collections on the historical practice of law. Special Collections hopes to add the second volume to its inventory in the future.

For research in this or any item at the Law Library Special Collections, see our webpage or contact Special Collections at archives@law.virginia.edu.

– Randi Flaherty 

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References:

Peter Groenewegen, ‘Postlethwayt, Malachy (1707–1767)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2013 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/22599, accessed 28 Oct 2014]


[1] Malachy Postlethwayt and Jacques Savary des Brûlons. The Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce: With Large Additions and Improvements, Adapting the Same to the Present State of British Affairs in America, Since the Last Treaty of Peace Made in the Year 1763. With Great Variety of New Remarks and Illustrations Incorporated Throughout the Whole: Together with Everything Essential That Is Contained in Savary’s Dictionary: Also, All the Material Laws of Trade and Navigation Relating to These Kingdoms, and the Customs and Usages to Which All Traders Are Subject. (London: H. Woodfall, 1766.)

[2] Postlethwayt’s Universal Dictionary provided a British perspective on these topics, though Postlethwayt also borrowed liberally from a previous dictionary by the Frenchman Jacques Savary des Brûlons.

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Randi Flaherty

Randi Flaherty is the Special Collections Librarian at the Arthur J. Morris Law Library. She is also an early American historian with a focus on foreign maritime commerce in the early American republic.

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1828 Catalogue Collection Adds Spelman’s Discourse

This week Sir Henry Spelman’s Discourse on Law Terms, an explanation of Jewish, Grecian, Roman, Norman, and Saxon law published in London in 1684, arrived at the University of Virginia Law Library well-preserved and with that smoky smell of many readings beside a fireplace.[1] 

The acquisition of Spelman’s work continues a forty-year effort by the Law Library’s Special Collections to reconstruct the collection of 375 law books listed in the 1828 Catalogue of the University of Virginia library. Many of the titles inventoried in 1828 burned in the U.Va. Rotunda and Annex fire of 1895 or scattered over time. To date, Special Collections has acquired duplicate editions—the same as those originally acquired by the University of Virginia— of 318 law texts from the 1828 library Catalogue. This Spelman acquisition is currently the only physical copy of Law Terms within the University of Virginia Library system. 

How did Spelman’s Law Terms become part of the University’s original library? Thomas Jefferson. In 1825, Jefferson compiled a 7,000-volume wish list of books, including Spelman’s Law Terms, to guide acquisitions for the new University of Virginia library. Jefferson, who believed law dictionaries would be a “1st want” of the original thirty students to study law at the University in 1826, likely selected Spelman’s Law Terms from John Clarke’s Bibliotheca Legum, published in London in 1819 and Jefferson’s go-to guide for law titles, or from his own personal library.[2] In 1825, the University hired Boston booksellers Cummings, Hilliard & Company to acquire books for the University library using Jefferson’s book list, and the firm purchased Law Terms in London along with many of the titles in the original library inventory. 

After a quick stop for some preservation, the Law Library is excited to add Spelman’s Law Terms to its Special Collections and make it available to students and researchers. Meanwhile, Special Collections staff continue the hunt for the missing 1828 Catalogue texts!

For more information on the 1828 Catalogue Law Books Collection or to research other items at the Law Library Special Collections, see our webpage or contact Special Collections at refdesk@law.virginia.edu.

– Randi Flaherty 

 


References:

Handley, Stuart. “Spelman, Sir Henry (1563/4–1641).” Stuart Handley In Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, edited by H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. Online ed., edited by Lawrence Goldman, October 2005. http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/26104 (accessed October 9, 2014).

University of Virginia, and William Peden. 1828 Catalogue of the Library of the University of Virginia. Charlottesville: Printed for the Alderman Library of the University of Virginia, 1945.

1828 Catalogue Law Books Collection at the University of Virginia Law School Special Collections: http://lib.law.virginia.edu/specialcollections/collections/1828-catalogue

Thomas Jefferson’s Libraries Project at Monticello: http://tjlibraries.monticello.org/


[1] Henry Spelman, Of the law-terms, a discourse wherein the laws of the Jews, Grecians, Romans, Saxons and Normans, relating to this subject are fully explained (London: Printed for Matthew Gillyflower, 1684).

[2] Thomas Jefferson to Cummings, Hilliard & Company, April 22, 1826, printed in Elizabeth Cometti, ed., Jefferson’s Ideas on a University Library: Letters from the Founder of the University of Virginia to a Boston Bookseller (Charlottesville: The University of Virginia, 1950), 43.  For Jefferson’s reliance on John Clarke’s Catalogue, see Thomas Jefferson to William Hilliard, August 7, 1825 in the same volume.  John Clarke, Clarke’s Bibliotheca Legum; Or, Complete Catalogue of the Common and Statute Law-books of the United Kingdom, with an Account of Their Dates and Prices, Arranged in a New Manner. New ed. (London: W. Clarke and Sons, 1819).

Written by

Randi Flaherty

Randi Flaherty is the Special Collections Librarian at the Arthur J. Morris Law Library. She is also an early American historian with a focus on foreign maritime commerce in the early American republic.

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